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N1 Ethernet and switching

This course covers both IEEE802.3 (10, 100, 1000 Mbps) and IEEE802.1D/802.1Q

  • The course covers the following standards: 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, 1000BASE-X, 1000BASE-T and 1000BASE-KX.
  • An architectural view of an Ethernet network is provided, highlighting the differences between repeaters, switches and routers.
  • The Synopsys MAC is studied as an implementation example of a MAC.
  • The course explains how the spanning tree algorithm works.
  • Quality of Service through the VLAN tag is explained.
  • The course details the operation of the PHY-to-MAC bus and the management interface.
  • The course describes the transmission protocol according to the medium.
  • Layer 3 and 4 TCP-UDP/IP protocols are studied through packet capture.
  • Ethernet related standards, such as PoE and EEE are included in this course.

  • Note that AC6 offers a separate course on 10G Ethernet.

  • This course has been delivered several times to companies implementing Ethernet in embedded systems, such as defense systems, railway equipments and avionics systems.
A more detailed course description is available on request at
  • Theoretical course
    • PDF course material (in English) supplemented by a printed version for face-to-face courses.
    • Online courses are dispensed using the Teams video-conferencing system.
    • The trainer answers trainees' questions during the training and provide technical and pedagogical assistance.
  • At the start of each session the trainer will interact with the trainees to ensure the course fits their expectations and correct if needed
  • Any embedded systems engineer or technician with the above prerequisites.
  • The prerequisites indicated above are assessed before the training by the technical supervision of the traineein his company, or by the trainee himself in the exceptional case of an individual trainee.
  • Trainee progress is assessed by quizzes offered at the end of various sections to verify that the trainees have assimilated the points presented
  • At the end of the training, each trainee receives a certificate attesting that they have successfully completed the course.
    • In the event of a problem, discovered during the course, due to a lack of prerequisites by the trainee a different or additional training is offered to them, generally to reinforce their prerequisites,in agreement with their company manager if applicable.

Course Outline

  • Protocol layers
  • Topology, equipments: hub, switch and router
  • Collisions, backoff algorithm
  • Flow control mechanisms (back pressure and pause packet)
  • Ethernet frame
  • Addressing
  • Transmit and receive errors detected by the MAC layers
  • Description of Synopsys Ethernet IP
  • RMON registers
  • Simple Network Management Protocol
  • Differential mode transmission
  • AUI operation, differential Manchester coding
  • 10Base-T
  • Repeater
  • Media Independent Interface
  • Clause 22 and Clause 45 interfaces
  • 4b/5b coding
  • Scrambling
  • 100Base-TX, MLT-3 modulation
  • Auto-negotiation
  • Medium types
  • Gigabit Media Independent Interface
  • Convolutional encoder
  • Trellis, Viterbi decoder
  • 4D-PAM5, constellations
  • PMA layer, PAM-5 modulation,
  • Electrical interface, testing transmitter and receiver
  • PCS layer
  • Scrambling
  • PMA layer
  • Auto-negotiation
  • Operation
  • Protocol
  • Software aspects
  • PTP summary
  • PTP in the Ethernet MAC layer
  • PTP in switches
  • Switch architecture
  • Filtering services
  • Spanning tree
  • Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
  • Management protocol
  • Port mirroring
  • Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
  • Frame tagging
  • Quality of Service
  • The TCP/IP protocol stack
  • IP
  • ARP
  • RARP
  • ICMP
  • UDP
  • TCP
  • DOS/UNIX TCP/IP commands
  • Studying the sequence to enter LPI
  • Studying the wake-up sequence