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D4 Real-time Linux

Real-time Linux with RT-Preempt patch and Xenomai

Real-time Linux with RT-Preempt patch and Xenomai
formateur
Objectives
  • Understand Real-Time programming
  • Discover the various solutions under Linux
    • The Preempt_RT patch
    • Xenomai
    • Real-Time drivers and networking with Xenomai
    • Programming with Xenomai
Labs are conducted on the PC or on ARM-based target boards (Quad Cortex-A9 Sabrelite boards from NXP)
We use the latest available kernel supported by Xenomai
Course environment
  • A PC for two trainees, with Linux and Xenomai on a target board
  • Printed course material
Prerequisite

First Day
Linux overview
  • Linux
    • History
    • Version management
  • The various licenses used by Linux (GPL, LGPL, etc)
  • Linux distributions
  • Linux architecture and modularity
Exercise :  Boot Linux automatically starting a user application
The Linux Boot
  • Linux kernel parameters
  • The Linux startup sequence
  • Various initialization systems (busybox init, system V init, systemd)
  • Automatically starting an embedded system
Exercise :  Boot Linux automatically starting a user application
The Linux kernel
  • Downloading stable source code
    • Getting a tarball
    • Using GIT
  • Configuring the kernel
  • Compiling the kernel and its modules
    • The Linux build system
    • Modules delivered in-tree
    • Out-of-tree modules
  • Installing the kernel and the modules
  • The Linux Device Tree
Exercise :  Configuring and compiling a target kernel for the target board
Second Day
Real-Time programming
  • Scheduling
  • Threads
    • Definition of a thread
    • POSIX threads
  • Synchronization and communication primitives
    • Mutexes and Condition Variables
    • Barriers
    • Semaphores
    • Message queues
  • Thread-specific Data
Exercise :  Implement a multi-threaded server
  • Classic real-time problems
    • Dead-Locks
    • Live-Locks
    • Priority Inversion
Exercise :  Solve the Readers-Writer problem
Debug and Analysis Tools
  • The Kernel tracing infrastructure
    • Tracepoints
    • The ftrace function tracer
    • Kprobes
    • Event tracers
  • Performance monitoring in the Linux kernel
    • Perfcounters
    • Perf events
  • Debugging the kernel using traces
  • LTTng
Exercise :  Trace context switches and measure latency times
Exercise :  Use LTTng to trace multi-task context switches
Third Day
Real-Time Solutions for Linux
  • The specificities of Real-Time
  • Why Linux is not Real-Time
  • Configuration Options in Vanilla Kernel
  • The Preempt_RT patch
  • The co-kernel approach
Exercise :  Install Preempt_RT and check the effect on latencies
Xenomai
  • Architecture
    • Adeos
    • Skins
    • Shadow Threads and Scheduling Domains
  • Xenomai Schedulers
    • The Real-Time class schedulers
    • The Weak class schedulers
  • Configuring Xenomai
Exercise :  Install Xenomai
Exercise :  Cross-compile an application for Xenomai
Fourth Day
Xenomai programming
  • The Xenomai Skins
    • POSIX
    • RTDM
  • Specificities of the POSIX skin
  • Programming RTDM drivers
    • Creating a kernel module
    • Integration in the Linux Device Model
  • Xenomai traces
  • Porting to Xenomai
Exercise :  Identify and Debug Spurious Relax problems
Exercise :  Port an application on Xenomai and test real-time characteristics
Exercise :  Write a simple RTDM driver
RTNet
  • Overview of RTNet
    • Architecture
    • Non-determinism of Ethernet
    • Time Division Multiple Access
  • Configuration
  • Network Programming with RTNet
Exercise :  Add RTNet support to the Xenomai kernel
Exercise :  Test using udp client and server