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RM5 Cortex-M33 Implementation

This course covers the Cortex-M33 ARMv8 core

Course objectives
  • This course is split into 3 parts:
    • Cortex-M33 architecture
    • Cortex-M33 software implementation and debug
    • Cortex-M33 DSP programming.
  • The Cortex-M33, although a 32-bit core, is one of the first ARMv8-M cores proposed by ARM and includes several advanced features.
  • The Cortex-M33 low level programming is explained, particularly the ARM linker parameterizing and some tricky assembly instructions.
  • The course also indicates how to the DSP and FPU instructions to boost DSP algorithm implementation.
  • The various Coresight debug elements implemented in the Cortex-M33 are also presented
  • Basic understanding of microprocessors and microcontrollers
Course Environment
  • Labs will be executed on an ARMv8 simulator.
  • Printed training material is given to attendees during training.
  • Precise and easy to use, it can be used as a reference afterwards.

First Day
Introduction to ARMv8-M Architecture
  • ARM Cortex-M33 processor macrocell
  • ARMv8-M Programmer’s model
  • Instruction pipeline
  • Fixed memory map
  • Privilege, modes and stacks
  • Memory Protection Unit
  • Security extensions
  • Interrupt handling
  • Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller [NVIC]
  • Power management
  • Debug
ARM Cortex-M33 core
  • Special purpose registers
  • Datapath and pipeline
  • Write buffer
  • Bit-banding
  • System timer
  • State, privilege and stacks
  • System control block
Architecture of a SoC based on Cortex-M33
  • Internal bus matrix
  • External bus matrix to support DMA masters
  • Connecting peripherals
  • Sharing resources between Cortex-M4 and other CPUs
  • Connection to Power Manager Controller
Second day
Embedded Software Development with Cortex-M33
  • Application startup
  • Placing code, data, stack and heap in the memory map, scatterloading
  • Reset and initialisation
  • Placing a minimal vector table
  • Further memory map considerations, 8-byte stack alignment in handlers
Exercise :  Create a standalone C application displaying data on a serial line
The T32 Instruction Set variant supported on ARMv8M
  • General points on syntax
  • Data processing instructions
  • Branch and control flow instructions
  • Memory access instructions
  • Exception generating instructions
  • If…then conditional blocks
  • Stack in operation
  • Stack limit registers
  • Exclusive load and store instructions, implementing atomic sequences
  • Memory barriers and synchronization
Exercise :  Create assembly-level functions to implement simple algorithms
Synchronization and Semaphores
  • Exclusive access instructions
  • The Local, Global and External monitors
  • Interaction with exclusive access instructions
  • Load Exclusive and Store Exclusive usage and constraints
Exercise :  Implement atomic variable manipulation using exclusive access instructions
Exercise :  Implement spinlocks
Cortex-M4 DSP Instruction Set
  • Multiply instructions
  • Packing / unpacking instructions
  • V6 ARM SIMD packed add / sub instructions
  • SIMD combined add/sub instructions, implementing canonical complex operations
  • Multiply and multiply accumulate instructions
  • SIMD sum absolute difference instructions
  • SIMD select instruction
  • Saturation instructions
Exercise :  Code assembly-language optimized data-processing algorithms
Third day
CMSIS DSP support
  • The CMSIS library framework
  • The CMSIS DSP intrinsic functions
  • The optimized CMSIS data-processing functions
Exercise :  Recode data-processing functions in C using intrinsics
Exercise :  Recode the same using CMSIS high-level data processing functions
Exercise :  Compare performance of the various implementations
Floating point Unit
  • Introduction to IEEE754
  • Floating point arithmetic
  • Cortex-M4F single precision FPU
  • Register bank
  • Enabling the FPU
  • FPU performance, fused MAC
  • Improving the performance by selection flush-to-zero mode and default NaN mode
  • Extension of AAPCS to include FP registers
Exercise :  Enable the FPU and use it for simple floating point algorithms
C/C++ Compiler hints and Tips for Cortex-M4
  • Mixing C/C++ and assembly
  • Coding with GCC compiler
  • Measuring stack usage
  • Unaligned accesses
  • Local and global data issues, alignment of structures
  • Further optimisations, linker feedback
Exercise :  Measure stack usage of a program
Exercise :  Place a user-defined data structure at a fixed address
Fourth day
  • Exception behavior, exception return
  • Non-maskable exceptions
  • Privilege, modes and stacks
  • Fault escalation
  • Priority boosting
  • Vector table
Exercise :  Manage synchronous exceptions to simplify FPU usage
Exercise :  Manage the SVC exception to switch between user and privileged modes
  • Basic interrupt operation, micro-coded interrupt mechanism
    • Interrupt entry / exit, timing diagrams
    • Interrupt stack
    • Tail chaining
  • Interrupt response, pre-emption
  • Interrupt prioritization
  • Interrupt handlers
  • The Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller (NVIC)
Exercise :  Handle a timer interrupt in C or assembly language
Exercise :  Manage interrupt masking and nesting between two interrupts
The Security Extension
  • Security states
  • Register banking between security states
  • Stacks and security states
  • Security Extension and exceptions
  • Secure state address protection
  • Secure and Non-Secure states interactions
    • Secure sate transitions
    • Function calls from Non-Secure to Secure state
    • Returning from Secure state
  • Exceptions and the Security Extension
    • Handling Secure Exceptions
    • Handling Non-Secure Exceptions while in the Secure state
    • Returning from a Non-Secure exception to the Secure state
  • The Security Attribution Unit
  • The Implementation Defined Attribution Unit
Exercise :  Implement a minimal secure monitor
Memory Protection Unit
  • Memory types
  • Access order
  • Memory barriers, self-modifying code
  • Memory protection overview, ARM v7 PMSA
  • Cortex-M4 MPU and bus faults
  • Fault status and address registers
  • Region overview, memory type and access control, sub-regions
  • Region overlapping
Exercise :  Use the MPU to protect an area of memory against unintended access
Debugging features
  • Invasive Debug
    • Coresight debug infrastructure
    • Halt mode
    • Vector catching
    • Debug event sources
    • Flash patch and breakpoint features
    • Data watchpoint and trace
    • ARM debug interface specification
    • Coresight components
    • AHB-Access Port
    • Possible DP implementations: Serial Wire JTAG Debug Port [SWJ-DP] or SW-DP
  • Non-Invasive debug
    • Basic ETM operation
    • Instruction trace principles
    • Instrumentation trace macrocell
    • ITM stimulus port registers
    • DWT trace packets
    • Hardware event types
    • Instruction tracing
    • Synchronization packets
    • Interface between on-chip trace data from ETM and Instrumentation Trace Macrocell [ITM]
    • TPIU components
    • Serial Wire connection