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ac6 >> ac6-training >> Processors >> NXP ARM SoCs >> LS1021A QorIQ implementation Download as PDF Write us

FQ1 LS1021A QorIQ implementation

This course covers the LayerScape LS1021A SoC

  • The course clarifies the architecture of the LS1021A, particularly the tuning of the interconnect.
  • Cache coherency protocol is introduced in increasing depth.
  • Only an overview of the ARM Cortex-A7 is provided, since this CPU is entirely covered by a separate course.
  • The boot sequence and the clocking are explained.
  • The course focuses on the hardware implementation of the LS1021A.
  • A long introduction to DDR4 SDRAM operation is done before studying the DDR3L/DDR4 SDRAM controller.
  • An in-depth description of the PCI-Express port is done.
  • The course highlights both hardware and software implementation of gigabit / fast / Ethernet controllers .
  • Communication interfaces are explained including QuiccEngine.

  • This course is only delivered on site and therefore its contents can be adapted to specific customer needs from the outlines described hereafter.
A more detailed course description is available on request at
  • Theoretical course
    • PDF course material (in English) supplemented by a printed version for face-to-face courses.
    • Online courses are dispensed using the Teams video-conferencing system.
    • The trainer answers trainees' questions during the training and provide technical and pedagogical assistance.
  • At the start of each session the trainer will interact with the trainees to ensure the course fits their expectations and correct if needed
  • Any embedded systems engineer or technician with the above prerequisites.
  • The prerequisites indicated above are assessed before the training by the technical supervision of the traineein his company, or by the trainee himself in the exceptional case of an individual trainee.
  • Trainee progress is assessed by quizzes offered at the end of various sections to verify that the trainees have assimilated the points presented
  • At the end of the training, each trainee receives a certificate attesting that they have successfully completed the course.
    • In the event of a problem, discovered during the course, due to a lack of prerequisites by the trainee a different or additional training is offered to them, generally to reinforce their prerequisites,in agreement with their company manager if applicable.

Course Outline

  • SoC architecture
  • Fixed memory map
  • Local vs external address spaces, inbound and outbound address decoding
  • CCI-400, Cache Coherent switch fabric
  • AMBA 4 snoop request transport
  • Snoop connectivity and control
  • Ensuring data coherency of I/O streams through ACE-Lite ports
  • System MMU
  • Programming the TrustZone firewall
  • OCRAM controller
  • QoS tuning
  • Cortex-A7 architecture
  • 64-Byte cacheline size, integrated L2 cache
  • VFPv4 and SIMDv2
  • Instruction pipeline
  • TrustZone conceptual view
  • Secure to non secure permitted transitions
  • L1 and L2 secure state indicators, memory partitioning
  • System security, Central Security Unit
  • Secure Non Volatile Storage
  • V7-A exception mechanism
  • GICv2
  • Need to introduce support for a second stage of translation as part of the Virtualization Extensions
  • New 3-level system
  • Hypervisor-level address translation
  • Level-1 table descriptor format
  • Level-2 table descriptor format
  • Attribute and Permission fields in the translation tables
  • Complete set of cache allocation hints
  • Handling of the ASID in the LPAE
  • Cache organization, 2-way instruction cache, 4-way data cache
  • Pseudo random replacement algorithm
  • Speculative accesses
  • Hit Under Miss, Miss under Miss
  • Detailing cache maintenance operations
  • L2 Cache
  • Read allocate mode
  • ACE master interface
  • By means of sequences involving a multi-core Cortex-A7 and external masters, understanding how snoop requests can be used to maintain coherency of data between caches and memory
  • Clock subsystem block diagram
  • Reference clock for SerDes protocols
  • Voltage configuration selection
  • Power-on reset sequence, detailing Reset Configuration Words
  • Power-on reset configuration
  • Pre-Boot Loader, required format of data structure consumed by PBL
  • Boot from parallel flash: NOR and NAND
  • Boot from serial flash: eSDHC and QuadSPI
  • Watchdog timer
  • Objectives of trust architecture
  • Internal boot ROM, secure boot sequence
  • Security fuse processor
  • Code signing
  • External tamper detection
  • Run time integrity checker
  • Key revocation
  • Software-controlled power management states
  • Core power management, doze and nap states
  • Device power management, sleep and deep-sleep states
  • Wake-up sources
  • Interfaces from 1.25 to 6 Gbps
  • External Signals Description
  • SerDes Lane Assignments and Multiplexing
  • SerDes clocking
  • DDR3L and DDR4 Jedec specification
  • DDR4 new features: Pseudo Open Drain termination, bank groups
  • Calibration mechanism
  • Command truth table
  • Hardware interface
  • Bank activation, read, write and precharge timing diagrams, page mode
  • ECC error correction
  • Freescale DDR 3/4 controller
  • Initial configuration following Power-on-Reset
  • Functional muxing of pins between NAND, NOR, and GPCM
  • Normal GPCM FSM
  • Flexible timing control
  • NOR flash FSM
  • Generic ASIC FSM
  • NAND flash FSM
  • ONFI-2.2 asynchronous interface
  • ECC generation/checking
  • SLC and MLC Flash devices support with configurable page sizes
  • Internal SRAM of 9 KByte
  • 4-lane PCI Express interface
  • Modes of operation, Root Complex / Endpoint
  • Transaction ordering rules
  • Programming inbound and outbound ATMUs
  • MSI management
  • Configuration, initialization
  • External signal description
  • Interface to one single or two external serial flash devices
  • Programmable sequence engine
  • AHB buffers, Look Up Table
  • Memory mapped read access to connected flash devices
  • Flash programming
  • eDMA
  • qDMA
  • SATA basics
  • Electrical specification
  • AHCI command layerStandard ATA master-only emulation
  • Command list structure
  • Interrupt coalescing
  • FIS-based switching
  • Introduction to DES, 3DES and AES algorithms
  • Job descriptor parsing
  • Sharing descriptors
  • Data movement, FIFOs
  • Scatter / gather DMA
  • Selecting the authentication / cryptographic algorithm
  • Export and Import of cryptographic Blobs
  • Public Key Hardware Accelerator (PKHA)
  • SNOW 3G Accelerator
  • Data Encryption Standard Accelerator (DES)
  • Cyclic Redundancy Check Accelerator (CRCA)
  • Message Digest Hardware Accelerator (MDHA)
  • Elliptic Curve Cryptographic Functions
  • Ethernet Controllers
    • 802.3 specification fundamentals
    • Address recognition, pattern matching
    • Physical interfaces
    • Layer 2 acceleration accept or reject on address or pattern match
    • Management of VLAN tags and priority, VLAN insertion and deletion
    • Quality of service, managing several transmit and receive queues
    • TCP/IP offload engine, filer programming
    • IEEE1588 compliant time-stamping
    • Interrupt coalescing
  • UARTs
  • I2C
  • SPI
  • FlexCAN controllers
  • Introduction to MMC and SD card
  • Storing and executing commands targeting the external card
  • Multi-block transfers
  • Read transfer sequence
  • Write transfer sequence
  • USB 2.0 controller
  • USB 3.0 controller
  • Display interface unit
  • SSI interfaces
  • Asynchronous Sample Rate Converter
  • SPDIF receiver / transmitter
  • 16-bit timer modes, up-counter, down-counter,
  • Input capture
  • Output compare
  • PWM
  • Communication between Host ARM CPU and QE RISC CPU, utilization of Command Register
  • Mapping of integrated resources
  • Priority management, understanding the priority table
  • Managing the priority within priority groups and between priority groups
  • Steering the interrupt source to either Low priority or High priority input of the platform PIC
  • Serial DMA
  • NMSI vs TDM
  • Enabling connections to TSA or NMSI
  • CMX registers
  • Utilization of Buffer Descriptors
  • Chaining descriptors into rings
  • Interrupt management
  • Handling UCC interrupts
  • Initialization sequence
  • Defining Tx- and Rx-FIFO thresholds
  • HDLC frame description
  • Flow control
  • Host commands
  • Transparent data encapsulation, frame sync and frame CRC
  • Flow control
  • Host commands
  • Connecting TDM lines
  • Parameterizing the timings related to Rx/Tx clock, sync and data signals
  • Clarifying the various tables that must be implemented in MURAM
  • Connecting time-slots to logical channels through Rx/Tx routing tables
  • Implementing Rx/Tx channel buffers
  • Interrupt management, benefits of interrupt queues
  • Modes of operation, transparent, HDLC