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SEC8 Secured Embedded Linux Platform Build

  • Implementing secure boot
  • Verifying the authenticity of system components before they are loaded and executed.
  • Ensure the authenticity and integrity of the bootloader, kernel
  • Implements the Trusted Boot
  • Provides a secure environment for the secure monitor firmware
  • Run OP-TEE on secure environment that runs alongside the main operating system
Labs are conducted on QEMU ARM-based board
  • C Language knowledge (see for example our L2 training course)
  • Embedded Linux Build knowledge (see for example our D1 training course)
  • You may be interested also by the SEC9 Advanced Embedded Linux Security course
  • You may be interested also by the SEC1 Secure Development for Embedded System course
  • You may be interested also by the SEC2 Advanced Embedded Systems Security course
  • Training manuals and software exercises
  • One Linux PC for two trainees
  • One target platform for two trainees
  • Total: 2 days
  • From 40% to 50% of training time is devoted to practical activities
  • Theoretical course
    • PDF course material (in English) supplemented by a printed version.
    • The trainer answers trainees' questions during the training and provide technical and pedagogical assistance.
  • Practical activities
    • Practical activities represent from 40% to 50% of course duration.
    • Code examples, exercises and solutions
    • One PC (Linux ou Windows) for the practical activities with, if appropriate, a target board.
      • One PC for two trainees when there are more than 6 trainees.
    • For onsite trainings:
      • An installation and test manual is provided to allow preinstallation of the needed software.
      • The trainer come with target boards if needed during the practical activities (and bring them back at the end of the course).
  • Downloadable preconfigured virtual machine for post-course practical activities
  • At the start of each session the trainer will interact with the trainees to ensure the course fits their expectations and correct if needed
  • Any embedded systems engineer or technician with the above prerequisites.
  • The prerequisites indicated above are assessed before the training by the technical supervision of the traineein his company, or by the trainee himself in the exceptional case of an individual trainee.
  • Trainee progress is assessed in two different ways, depending on the course:
    • For courses lending themselves to practical exercises, the results of the exercises are checked by the trainer while, if necessary, helping trainees to carry them out by providing additional details.
    • Quizzes are offered at the end of sections that do not include practical exercises to verifythat the trainees have assimilated the points presented
  • At the end of the training, each trainee receives a certificate attesting that they have successfully completed the course.
    • In the event of a problem, discovered during the course, due to a lack of prerequisites by the trainee a different or additional training is offered to them, generally to reinforce their prerequisites,in agreement with their company manager if applicable.

Course Outline

  • Linux history
  • Linux architecture and modularity
  • Linux system components
  • The various licenses used by Linux (GPL, LGPL, etc)
  • Low-level boot
    • Boot on NOR
    • Boot on NAND
    • Boot on SD/MMC/eMMC
    • Multistage Boot
    • Why do we need a trusted boot chain
  • Security Concerns
    • Confidentiality and Integrity
    • Tampering Prevention
    • Compliance and Certification
Exercise:  Boot the platform with the prebuilt image
  • Secure Boot concept
    • The chain of trust
    • Complete secure boot process
  • Key Management
    • Introduction to key management
    • Cryptographic algorithms and key types
    • Key storage options: Hardware-based and software-based
    • Key management processes: Generation and revocation of keys
    • ARM-based platforms hardware features overview
    • Secure Monitor
    • Secure World
    • Trusted Execution Environment
    • Secure Boot on RISCV and X86_64
    • Cryptographic Accelerators
  • Software Solutions
    • Open source
    • Proprietary
Exercise:  Generate keys that are going to be used for platform encryption
  • U-Boot
    • Capabilities and features
    • Configuration, customization, and compilation
    • U-Boot SPL as First-Stage Boot Loader (SSBL)
    • Role of u-boot in the trusted boot chain
    • How U-Boot verifies the authenticity of the images it loads
    • Configuration options for securing the boot process
    • Interaction with the secure world and Trusted Execution Environment
    • Signing U-boot
  • Arm Trusted Firmware (ATF)
    • Overview and features
    • ATF Boot flow
    • Services
    • Build and deploy
  • Other platform specific components
Exercise:  Build and boot the platform with U-boot as FSBL and SSBL
Exercise:  Build and Boot the platform with ATF as FSBL and U-boot as SSBL
  • Introduction to Linux kernel
    • Source code
    • Configuration
    • Compilation
  • FIT (Flattened Image Tree) Image
    • What is FIT and why is it used
    • Advantages of using FIT image
    • Configuration
    • Building a Secure FIT Image
  • Kernel Configuration for a Secure Linux Platform
    • Configuration options for secure boot in the Linux kernel
    • Access Control Configuration overview
Exercise:  Create a secured FIT Linux image
  • Tips for hardening and securing a rootfs
    • Minimizing the rootfs
    • Strong authentication
    • Keep software updated
    • Using initramfs
  • Read-only root filesystem
    • Introduction to read-only root filesystem
    • Purpose and benefits
    • Overview of the different solutions available
    • SquashFS
    • CramFS: Small memory footprint
    • OverlayFS-based read-only root filesystem
    • UnionFS-based read-only root filesystem
  • Considerations when choosing a read-only root filesystem solution
    • Evaluation based on use case, security, performance, and compatibility
  • Encrypting Update Images
    • Securely update Linux platform using Mender
Exercise:  Create a read-only file system using SquashFS
  • Introduction to OP-TEE
  • Key Features
  • Hardware, software, and firmware requirements
  • Architecture of OP-TEE
    • Components, modules, and communication channels
  • Use Cases
    • Secure storage
    • Secure communication
    • Secure execution of applications
  • OP-TEE build and deployment
    • Setting up the environment
    • Configuration of OP-TEE
    • Compilation of OP-TEE
  • Comparison to other TEE solutions
  • Trusted Applications (TA) on OP-TEE
    • The role of a TA in a secure system
    • Writing a Trusted Application
    • Loading and executing a Trusted Application within the OP-TEE runtime
    • Debugging and testing Trusted Applications
    • Communication between Trusted Applications and normal world applications
    • Best practices for creating secure Trusted Applications
Exercise:  Build and install OP-TEE
Exercise:  Write a TA application that communicates with a normal world application